Paul David Tripp

Paul David Tripp

by Hannah Stokes

I. Known For

Paul David Tripp is a world renown Christian author, pastor, and event speaker.  Paul has published best-selling and award-winning books and has written over 30 books on what it looks like to live as a Christian.  Paul Tripp has planted a church, founded a Christian school, and has written worship songs.  His primary goal in life is to “connect the transforming power of Jesus Christ to everyday life”.

II> Biography

Paul Tripp was born to Bob and Fae Tripp, on November 12,1950 in Toledo, Ohio.  Bob and Fae had been saved by grace not long before Paul was born, and they were thrilled to raise their child in a Christian home.  His parents held a time of family worship each day, and they were at church for every event that was held there.  Although his family strived to live in a home that was honoring to God, they went through a few very hard times.  Through these hard times, Paul grew a desire to see the gospel play out in a broken world.  At the age of nine, Paul understood and grasped the truths of scripture, and was saved by the Lords grace. After years of making friends, going to school, being involved in the church, and doing a variety of different things in Toledo, when Paul went to college, his parents moved to Southern California, therefore, Toledo was no longer home to him.

Paul married his wife, Luella Jackson in 1971, after meeting at Columbia Bible College, where they both studied.  In the same year that he married Luella, Paul started his first pastoral position at a local church.  After completing college, Paul decided to go back and complete his Master of Divinity degree at what is now called the Philadelphia Theological Seminary.  From the time that he and his wife got married, and when he completed his degree in Divinity, Paul and Luella had four children.  As Paul grew in his Christian walk, his love for ministry grew also.  This caused him to have a desire to help plant a church in Scranton, Pennsylvania through 1977-1987, and during this same time, he founded a Christian school.  Another thing that Paul did during his years in Scranton, was becoming involved in music, where he traveled with a Christian band and developed a love for writing worship songs.  As time went on, Paul also developed a love for biblical counseling, which resulted in him deciding to enroll in the D.Min program in Biblical Counseling at Westminster Theological Seminary, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  After going through yet another few years of studies, Paul used what he had learned and joined the CCEF (Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation).  He also decided to teach at the Westminster Theological Seminary and was a visiting professor at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary.

Paul, his wife, and children moved to Philadelphia in 1987, where they built the rest of their lives.  They are currently and have for years, been involved in their local church (Tenth Presbyterian Church) where Paul preaches each Sunday and leads a ministry that they have that goal is sharing the gospel with people in the inner city.  Paul’s children have had joy in the fact that their father and mother have raised them in the church.  As a family, they have served together and have been involved in daily devotions, similar to how Paul was raised.  Paul’s wife, Luella, manages a commercial art gallery in the city, where she uses her talents to advance the gospel to people who have not ever heard it.  Paul as well as his wife, loves painting and has committed himself to using painting as yet another way for him to help people understand the Bible.

In the beginning of June, 2006, Paul started a nonprofit organization named Paul Tripp Ministries, which has reached millions of people across the world.  Paul is also the president of this ministry whose goal is to connect the transforming power of Jesus to daily life.  A year and a half later, in January 2007, Paul became part of the pastoral staff at the church that he has been preaching and faithfully attending to this very day.  Paul is also a Professor of Pastoral Life and Care at a seminary in Dallas, Texas.  He also works as an Executive Director of the Center for Pastoral Life and Care in Fort Worth, Texas.

 

III. Important Theological Views

Tripp’s denominational affiliation is Presbyterian, and although there are many types of Presbyterian, this specific church (Tenth Presbyterian) believes that God’s Word is without error and is the ultimate authority in the Church.  They teach that scripture is the only way that we can know who God is, who we are as humans, and how we can be saved.  When they said that their church is confessional, they mean that their church subscribes to the ancient Christian creeds and to historic, protestant, and Reformed theology as is taught in The Westminster Confession of Faith.  This church is also Presbyterian, which means that they are a church that is governed by elders who are called by God and elected by people in the church.  They believe that the governors of the church emphasize the character of the Church as is shown in the New Testament.  They preach the truth that humanity is inherently sinful, and that everyone who is living in the world deserves the wrath of God.  The church also believes and teaches that Jesus was a real person in history and that He came to the earth to die for his children (those he elected) because he loves us.  They believe in the Divine Trinity, and that each member of the Trinity is incredibly important and plays different roles in a believer’s life.

 

IV. Works/ Publications

Paul David Tripp has written over 30 different books, which are all written on theological views of lifestyle.  The most famous of which are; Instruments in The Redeemers Hands, How People Change, War of Words and Age of Opportunity. He writes each of his books with the purpose of encouraging others in different stages of life as they are striving to walk with the Lord.

 

Bibliography:

 

“About Paul Tripp” PaulTripp.com

https://www.paultripp.com/about

“Presbyterians: 10 Things to Know about Their History & Beliefs” Christianity.com

https://www.christianity.com/church/denominations/presbyterians-10-things-to-know-about-this-historic-denomination.html

 

“Our Beliefs” Tenth.Org

https://www.tenth.org/about/our-beliefs

 

“Paul David Tripp” Last.fm

https://www.last.fm/music/Paul+David+Tripp/+wiki

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discontentment (Singleness)

Discontentment (Singleness)

by Lauren Koval

I. Definition

A. Biblical perspective

1. Biblical Definition

Discontentment in the single life, as Dr. Ernie Baker explains in reference to one case of a discontent single man, “He continually struggled with really loving the Lord as his first priority because he believed that to be happy, he had to be married.”[1] The desire to be married, and, often, start a family, becomes the ultimate hope and satisfaction of the single’s life, and the unhappiness of that “hope deferred” (Proverbs 13:12) becomes all-consuming for the single person. This can result in loneliness, depression, or resentfulness.[2]

2. Biblical Perspective

God is always working all things for the believer’s good and his own glory (Romans 8:28). God does not withhold anything good from “those who walk uprightly” (Psalm 84:11). Since singleness is also in the control of God, then discontentment or anger at God is a lack of trust in his goodness and sovereignty to provide what is good to those who love him. Discontentment or the quest for fulfillment from an external or earthly circumstance, like marriage, also shows dissatisfaction with God. Paul learned contentment through Christ who gave him strength (Phil. 4:12-13) because he had learned how Christ was of such surpassing worth (Philippians 3:8).[3] The dissatisfied single longing for marriage to create her happiness looks to a “broken cistern” that holds no water, and to an unfulfilling hope (Jeremiah 2:13). The solution is “living water,” that is, Jesus himself (John 4), who can provide all the satisfaction, companionship, and grace that believers need.[4] The goal is not marriage or singleness, but pursuing a relationship with Christ and his kingdom as the ultimate satisfaction and delight.[5]

B. Secular perspective

Psychology has labeled discontentment and depression in singleness as an “ambiguous loss,” because, “adults who are single do not know when, if at all, someone who matches their anticipated spouse will come into their lives and choose to marry them.”[6] Because they do not see the realization of those hopes or dreams, yet have not completely lost hope of seeing them realized, they are in an in-between mourning stage of something that is not physically there, but is psychologically there.[7] This grief is in a “frozen” state, that which is unresolved, and thus more painful, and uncertain.[8] The longing for relationship flows from a desire for “joy and purpose” from another human, thus, “the absence of meaningful relationships typically leads to loneliness, emptiness, depression, and despair.”[9] With this comes the difficulty of societal pressures and expectations, and the inability to publicly mourn this “psychological loss.”[10]

The goal of treatment of this depressing and ambiguous loss is to train the person to “cope” with the mourning and continue on with life, changing the attitude, not the inevitable situation.[11] Because guilt, or identity-issues, or shame, or confusion can come when the hope of relationship is lost, but not quite, the psychologist can encourage the client by “supporting the notions that there is nothing wrong with enjoying singlehood and nothing wrong with enjoying marriage.”[12] Other therapies like acknowledging conflicting emotions and normalizing the struggle often helps the client come to terms with their own emotions.[13] Finally, helping the client find a new identity and meaning outside of “singleness” or “marriage,” causes them to keep the hope, but not be consumed by it.[14] More assertive therapies include accepting the singleness to the point of saying, “I am not married because I do not want to be…I am single because I am enough for me.”[15] This method encourages the discontent client to find their rest and identity and confidence in their own sufficiency, not their longing for marriage to fulfill them, or their fear of the stigma of singleness.

C. History

The idea of loneliness or discontentment in any situation has been since the Fall. Jane Clark says, “[loneliness] is caused by sin…by our estrangement from God and each other.”[16] Sin causes us to seek satisfaction outside of God, or assume we need something other than what God has given. However, the more modern and cultural situation of increasing singleness has only developed in the past few decades. In the 1950s, only thirty-one percent of adults in America were single. As of 2015, that number has jumped to forty-five percent. The ages of single adults has grown over the same amount of time; on average, the age at marriage has increased six to seven years older. [17] As the article points out, “Despite the high rates of singlehood in the United States, 93% of Americans report that marrying is one of the most important life objectives they have.”[18] So, though the amount of married couples is decreasing, the desire for marriage is not. As online dating services, and other creative methods of forming relationships abound, the issue becomes more and more prevalent.

For singles in the Church, the solution seems to be marriage, and singles are often seen as second best. Betty-Anne Van Rees discusses the “shift” to this issue beginning in World War II, when more women becoming increasingly independent in the work force, causing the increase of singles.[19] As the Church generally centered on families, ministering to the growing number of singles became more difficult to adjust to, and more people struggled with desiring marriage and being discontent with their singlehood. More recently, the approach to loneliness in singlehood in the secular world has been to embrace and celebrate “singlehood.” Books like Eliyam Kislev’s Happy Singlehood, or Keturah Kendrick’s No Thanks: Black, female, and living in the martyr-free zone, promote the idea of perspective, that loneliness is a choice one makes, and, that being single is a healthy and good thing.[20]

Kate Bolick, as explained on Lavin, argues that, “changing opportunities for women are changing the definition of the family, the workplace, the economy, and society as a whole.”[21] As the shift to singlehood grows, the desire for marriage and discontentment in singleness are set aside for celebration of singleness and independence.

II. Evidence of the Problem

Some common themes and patterns of discontented singleness include extreme feelings of loneliness that results in despair and depression. Pulling away from Church activities and involvement because of the pain of seeing married friends, never attending weddings, and experience long episodes of depression during holidays. They can be distracted from ministry and are too preoccupied with searching for a spouse that they are unable to serve the Lord and his Kingdom.

Other results of this discontentedness include dating incessantly or settling for someone who is below the person’s standards.[22] Or, the desire to have attention from someone and escape loneliness causes them to turn to sexual intimacy outside of marriage. Self-pity, feelings of inferiority, or feelings of meaningless are also signs of discontented singleness.

III. Etiology

A. The Physical (external) Causes:

-Lacking a marriage or dating partner.

-Same Sex Attraction. Desiring marriage but not being attracted to the opposite sex.

B. The Spiritual Causes:

-Marriage fantasizing and idolizing

-Desire for affirmation and validation

-Lacking trust in God

-Seeing Singleness as a curse

IV. Examining the Heart

    1. Discontented singleness can flow from a variety of heart idols or themes. The person who desires marriage so strongly that they have become bitter towards God can result from a heart that is worshiping acceptance or security in relationships as the ultimate goal. They feel they are incomplete or invalidated by not achieving marriage, or, feel that the love of another human will complete them and make them less inferior. This is similar to the idol of people’s acceptance, placing one’s hope in the love of another human. Discontent can flow from a misunderstanding of desires. Jayne Clark argues that it is a misconception that God will always fulfill the desire of marriage if he has given it to someone. She refutes this claim by saying God has never guaranteed this in His Word, but that those desires are meant to be brought “under the lordship of Jesus Christ.”[23] Other heart idols are worshiping comfort or security in circumstantial change, worshiping a sense of importance because of marriage, or worshiping the ability to control circumstances to one’s desired end. This demonstrates a lack of trust in God’s goodness, and a desire for satisfaction outside of him.

 

V. Biblical Solutions

A. Key Counseling Points

Because discontentment is rooted in heart idols, Dr. Ernie Baker discusses in his book, Marry Wisely, Marry Well, that, singles must examine their heart. If they are looking to marriage to make them happy, then it is replacing Christ and what he alone can give.[24] If others have become the rock, the hope of fulfillment or happiness, then that is an idol that replaces the Lord.[25] A sense of need of fulfillment of others by marriage forsakes the Lord as the true place of refuge.[26] This must be repented of, and then worship of and love for the Lord turns the heart to find satisfaction in him.

Discontent singles must also overcome wrong beliefs about loneliness. Jayne Clark says, “Loneliness is actually caused…by sin…our estrangement from God.”[27] Because this is true, “The solution lies in the redemption of our relationship with God.”[28] Pursuing a deeper and more meaningful relationship with the Father through his Son is where true happiness comes. This idea, of pursuing deeper communion with God for lasting contentment rather than looking to marriage for the cure to loneliness is echoed by Dr. Ernie Baker, Lori Smith, Sean Perron, and many others. Because of Christian community, the call out of loneliness is to then turn to the community and union of the Body of Christ and enjoy the fellowship of believers.[29]

The single person must learn to trust the Lord. Bitterness and anger at God for not fulfilling the desire for marriage results from disbelieving that he is good, that he does not withhold anything good from his children, or disbelieving that he is in control of every circumstance (Romans 8:28; Psalm 84:11). If singleness is God’s plan, then it is the best plan for your life at this time. Embrace it, and rejoice in God’s goodness towards you, and turn to him.[30] It’s not something to settle for, but something to thank God for, that he has given this circumstance in this time, and has its own joys and blessings.

Sean Perron, author for “Biblical Counseling Coalition” and Marshall Seagal, author of Not Yet Married: The Pursuit of Joy in Singleness and Dating as well as others encourage singles to develop their love for the Lord and his Word, and then rest in his love for them. This leads to the conviction that Jesus alone is living water (John 4). Finally, because Christians are made to enjoy community with other believers with the union of the Body of Christ, they must involve themselves in the Church, building relationships, discipling others, and serving by using their gifts, not bemoaning their unmarried state and wasting the time in their life to serve.[31]

Discontent singles with same sex attraction need to understand the same principles as above. But, an even more intense feeling of loneliness or isolation can come upon them. As a result, they must be reminded that they are not left alone by Jesus, nor by his church, and that their struggle is common to man (1 Cor. 10:13). There is hope for the pursuit of holiness and love for the Lord. Their struggles should not be reduced to something simple, but, in love, they must be shown God’s goodness and grace in their struggle.[32]

Counseling for contentment also doesn’t mean that the desire for marriage should vanish in contentment. Asking the Lord for a godly spouse, pursuing relationships toward marriage, and examining ways that you can grow are all things that are important parts of this season in life.

B. Important passages in contentment in singleness:

-Know the Lord’s goodness (Psalm 103; Psalm 84:11)

-Know the Lord is in control and trustworthy, working in all situations (Romans 8:28)

-Use singleness as an opportunity and delight and gift to please the Lord (1 Corinthians 7)

-Set surpassing worth on knowing Christ (Philippians 3:8; Phil. 4:11-13).

-Humble yourself before the Lord and draw near to him, repenting of coveting and discontentment (James 4:1-10).

-Rest in the satisfaction God brings (John 4)

 

C. Recommended Books

Not Yet Married: The Pursuit of Singleness and Dating by Marshall Segal

Marry Wisely, Marry Well by Dr. Ernie Baker

The Secret of Contentment by William B. Barcley

Single and Lonely: Finding the Intimacy you Desire by Jayne V. Clark

Quest for Love by Elisabeth Elliot

Passion and Purity: Learning to Bring your Love Life under Christ’s Control by Elisabeth Elliot.

Redeeming Singleness: How the Storyline of Scripture Affirms the Single Life by Barry Danylak

Seven Myths about Singleness by Sam Allberry

D. Homework Resources

Contentment: Seeing God’s Goodness: 31-Day Devotional by Megan Hill

Discovering Wonderful Things Worksheet for:

Philippians 4:11-13

Study 1 Corinthians 7

Chapters 5 and 7 in Marry Wisely, Marry Well and answer the questions at the end of the chapters.

 

 

 

Bibliography

Asmus, Christopher. “Satisfied in the Arms of Another: Four Lessons for Same-Sex-Attracted

Christians.” Desiring God, October 24, 2018.

https://www.desiringgod.org/articles/satisfied-in-the-arms-of-another.

Baker, Dr. Ernie. Marry Wisely, Marry Well. Wapwallopen: Shepherd Press, 2016.

Clark, Jayne V. “Struggling through Singleness.” Journal of Biblical Counseling 29, no. 1,

(2015): 7-18.

DePaulo, Bella. “Single Life in the 21st Century: A Guide to Owning It.” Psychology Today,

June 22, 2019.https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/living-single/201906/single-

life-in-the-21st-century-guide-owning-it.

Jackson, Jeffrey B., “The Ambiguous Loss of Singlehood: Conceptualizing and Treating

Singlehood Ambiguous Loss Among Never-Married Adults.” Contemporary Family

Therapy 40, (2018): 210-222.

Lavin. “Going It Alone: Kate Bolick on the History of Singlehood.” Lavin, December 27, 2012.

https://www.thelavinagency.com/news/going-it-alone-kate-bolick-on-the-history-of-

singlehood.

Perron, Sean. “Relationships: Contentment and Dating.” Biblical Counseling Coalition, February

7, 2018. https://www.biblicalcounselingcoalition.org/2018/02/07/relationships-

contentment-and-dating/.

Reju, Deepak. “How Can you Be Satisfied on Valentine’s Day (And for the Rest of Your Life)?”

Biblical Counseling Coalition, February 13, 2019,

https://www.biblicalcounselingcoalition.org/2019/02/13/how-can-you-be-satisfied-on-valentines-day-and-for-the-rest-of-your-life/.

Van Rees, Betty-Anne. “Single in the Church.” Biblical Counseling Coalition, February 14,

  1. https://www.biblicalcounselingcoalition.org/2015/02/04/single-in-the-church/.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Dr. Ernie Baker, Marry Wisely, Marry Well (Wapwallopen: Shepherd Press, 2016), 71.

[2] Jayne V. Clark, “Struggling through Singleness,” Journal of Biblical Counseling 29, no. 1, (2015), 15.

[3] Sean Perron, “Relationships: Contentment and Dating,” Biblical Counseling Coalition, February 7, 2018, https://www.biblicalcounselingcoalition.org/2018/02/07/relationships-contentment-and-dating/.

[4] Deepak Reju, “How Can you Be Satisfied on Valentine’s Day (And for the Rest of Your Life)?” Biblical Counseling Coalition, February 13, 2019, https://www.biblicalcounselingcoalition.org/2019/02/13/how-can-you-be-satisfied-on-valentines-day-and-for-the-rest-of-your-life/.

[5] Sean Perron, “Relationships: Contentment and Dating.”

 

[6] Jeffrey B. Jackson, “The Ambiguous Loss of Singlehood: Conceptualizing and Treating Singlehood Ambiguous Loss Among Never-Married Adults,” Contemporary Family Therapy 40 (2018): 213.

 

[7] Ibid., 213.

[8] Ibid., 211.

[9] Ibid., 212.

[10] Ibid., 214.

[11] Ibid., 215.

[12] Ibid., 216.

[13] Ibid., 217.

[14] Ibid., 219.

[15] Bella DePaulo, “Single Life in the 21st Century: A Guide to Owning It,” Psychology Today, June 22, 2019, https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/living-single/201906/single-life-in-the-21st-century-guide-owning-it.

[16] Jayne V. Clark, “Struggling through Singleness,” 10.

[17] Jeffrey B. Jackson, “The Ambiguous Loss of Singlehood,” 210.

[18] Ibid., 211.

[19] Betty-Anne Van Rees, “Single in the Church,” Biblical Counseling Coalition, February 14, 2015, https://www.biblicalcounselingcoalition.org/2015/02/04/single-in-the-church/.

[20] Bella DePaulo, “Single Life in the 21st Century.”

[21] Lavin, “Going It Alone: Kate Bolick on the History of Singlehood,” Lavin, December 27, 2012, https://www.thelavinagency.com/news/going-it-alone-kate-bolick-on-the-history-of-singlehood.

[22] Deepak Reju, “How Can you Be Satisfied on Valentine’s Day (And for the Rest of Your Life)?”

[23] Jayne. V. Clark, “Struggling Through Singleness,” 9.

[24] Dr. Ernie Baker, Marry Wisely, Marry Well (Wapwallopen: Shepherd Press, 2016), 28.

 

[25] Ibid., 29.

 

[26] Ibid., 44.

 

[27] Jayne V. Clark, “Struggling Through Singleness,” 10.

[28] Ibid., 11.

[29] Dr. Ernie Baker, Marry Wisely 72.

 

[30]

[31] Ibid., 75-77

[32] Christopher Asmus, “Satisfied in the Arms of Another: Four Lessons for Same-Sex-Attracted Christians,” Desiring God, October 24, 2018, https://www.desiringgod.org/articles/satisfied-in-the-arms-of-another.

The Master’s University

The Master’s University 

by Rachel Miller

 

I. Overview

In 1991, The Master’s University became the first school to offer a Bachelor of Arts degree in biblical counseling.  The program is, “designed to prepare God’s people to meet counseling-related needs wherever they exist with the sufficient and superior resources God provides.”[1]   Students at The Master’s University may obtain a B.A./M.A. in biblical studies with an emphasis in biblical counseling as either traditional or online students.

The biblical counseling program seeks to equip students to accurately understand and apply, and instruct others through God’s Word.  They are committed to the authority and sufficiency of God’s Word to address all of man’s problems.  They hold that, while secular psychology may provide helpful observations, only God’s Word can provide accurate interpretation and bring about effective hope and change.  They affirm biblical counseling because they are, “committed to the Word of God as being authoritative Truth; because the only means of authentic change begins with faith in Jesus; and because the ultimate jurisdiction of counseling falls within the church.”[2]  They assert that while outside sources can be helpful, everything man needs to live a God-honoring life is contained within God’s Word.

TMU is connected with the Association of Certified Biblical Counselors and holds to the same biblical counseling model, as opposed to the integrational model of counseling.  Students who receive their B.A./M.A. in Biblical Counseling have completed much of the work necessary to receive their ACBC certification.  TMU also offers further study in biblical counseling through their Master of Arts in Biblical Counseling.

 

II. History

In 1991, Dr. John MacArthur authored Our Sufficiency in Christ in which he asserts that, “to possess the Lord Jesus Christ is to have every spiritual resource,”[3] and that Christ is sufficient to provide for all man’s needs.  That same year, as president of the university, he hired Dr. Robert Smith as the first biblical counseling faculty member at TMU.  Dr. Wayne Mack was then hired in 1993 to head up the program at the graduate level.  The departments have seen several changes in leadership at both the graduate and undergraduate level.  The MABC program is now led by Dr. John Street, while Dr. Greg Gifford heads up the undergraduate counseling program.  Dr. Ernie Baker is the online biblical counseling department chair.[4]

III. Resources

A. Leaders

Undergraduate Faculty:

Greg Gifford

Shelbi Cullen

Adjunct Undergraduate Faculty:

Jamaica Groover-Skelton

Robert Somerville

Tom Sugimura

Adam Tyson

Ed Wilde

Former Undergraduate Faculty:

Ernie Baker

Joe Keller

Wayne Mack

Bob Smith

Robert Somerville

MABC Faculty:

Stuart Scott

John Street

B. Publications

1. Journals:

The Journal of Biblical Soul Care https://www.masters.edu/jbsc.html

2. Books

The Master’s University Biblical Counseling faculty have written several books contributing to the field of biblical counseling, including:

How to Counsel Biblically – Master’s University Faculty

Think Biblically! – Master’s University Faculty

Marry Wisely, Marry Well – Ernie Baker

Helping Your Family Through PTSD – Greg Gifford 

Christian Life Issues – Wayne Mack

Anger and Stress Management – Wayne Mack

 To Be or not to Be a Church Member – Wayne Mack

 God’s Solutions to Life’s Problems – Wayne Mack

 Preparing for Marriage God’s Way – Wayne Mack

 Strengthening Your Marriage – Wayne Mack

31 Ways to Be a “OneAnother” Christian – Stuart Scott

Counseling the Hard Cases – Stuart Scott and Heath Lambert

Men Counseling Men – John Street

C. Blog Posts

https://www.masters.edu/news/biblical-counseling-v-pyschology.html

D. Counseling

The Master’s University does not practice counseling, but equips students for the work of counseling.

 

E. External Links

 

Bibliography

[1] https://www.masters.edu/programs/biblical-counseling.html

[2] “Biblical Counseling v. Psychology,” Dr. Greg Gifford, February 7, 2018, https://www.masters.edu/news/biblical-counseling-v-pyschology.html.

[3] John MacArthur, Our Sufficiency in Christ, (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1991), 11.

[4] Greg Gifford, “History of Biblical Counseling at The Master’s University,” Dec. 11, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sebP4aVxrU&feature=emb_logo.

 

Habit(s)

Habit(s)

By Alethia Brewer

 

  1. Definition

A habit is as an unconsciously-acted, learned pattern of behavior.

  1. History

Great philosophical thinkers such as Aristotle, Descartes, Hobbes, Rousseau, Newton, Hume, and others throughout history have desired to understand people and why they do what they do. A large part of this understanding involves understanding patterns of behaviors: habits. Aristotle began the idea of associationism which views mental phenomena as formed by the association of simple events. Certain pathways of behavior and sensations will be preferred and strengthened if they have been favored in the past.[1] This idea was strengthened by behaviorism which reinforced the idea of association with conditioning. Stimuli and response, and external observables and possibilities, and the idea of rewards, all enforce neurological pathways i.e., habits. Those in the associationism camp tend to view habits as a result of brain function and conditioning.

There is another train of thought on habits called the organicist trend, Kant, Spinoza, Hagel, and Gestalt are major contributors to this view, though all differ in their conclusions. Habits are not seen as the passive result of biological automation working with pre-established ideas, stimulus, or rewards, but as “dynamically configured stable patterns”[2] The more these patterns are enacted, the more they are established. The organicist view treats the formation of habits as relating to the whole entity of an organism: it is not just the brain creating pathways. Habits involve both mechanism and cognitive intentionality creating a framework to ground the individual in his identity.

  1. Secular Perspective

Positive Habits

Habits are positive because they decrease cognitive effort in an individual and often result in saved time because one is not consciously thinking through routine choices such as when and how to brush their teeth. Habits are important in behavior change because those who act on beneficial habits can have an automated means of self-control.[3] Habits create a tangible pathway for change in an individual who wants a new pattern of behavior, achieve a long-term goal, and self-regulate.

Negative Habits

Habits are negative because often intentionality is decreased. because there is no desire for a change in behavior if the immediate outcome is desirable. Therefore, they are good in the short term but have consequences in the long term. Habits are can be resistant to change when ingrained in the individual because they are not intentionally considering new information or possibilities,[4] instead, they are acting on automation. Habits can lead to compulsive behavior that is characteristic of addiction which is a sign that it is a destructive habit. Bad habits cause stress and anxiety because they have harmful future effects, but good habits bring happiness because they have positive long-term repercussions.[5]

Etiology

Habits are biological functions of the brain where it has a preferred tendency to certain behavior as a result of repetition. Neural pathways in the brain have been conditioned by repetition and past performance to an extent where the individual is no longer cognitively acting. Habits are responses of the brain to the environment with little intention involved. Certain social and environmental ques invoke specified reactions in the individual. The environment is not just the people and situations around them but also may be internal thoughts, stress, or motivation. These environments may trigger old habits without intention because the pathways of the brain have not been redone completely.[6]

Habit Change

To change a habit a person must intentionally and consistently work to replace the existing habit with a new one, one cannot just stop a habit. The individual’s brain has been taught by repetition to react and desire certain things. Orthodox ways of changing habits involve education of the negative effects of the habit. One must fully understand the repercussions of unwanted actions. They should evaluate their motivations and think about the positive things that will happen with the new changed pattern of behavior. They should intentionally contrast these side-effects of certain behavior.[7] After this, they should sit down and make a tangible and intentional plan of implementation which involves when they will practice the good habit, ways of making the negative habit easier to do, and situations of avoiding the desire to act on that habit. Habit change involves stopping the unwanted response when activated in the mind.[8] This is only successful if the plan is carried out repeatedly over a long duration. Eventually, this will become a new and healthy pattern of behavior.

  1. Biblical Perspective

Positive Habits

Patterns of actions are not inherently wrong but are sovereign gifts from God, so man does not have to relearn continually.[9] The Bible often speaks of habits, but not with the specific word “habit,” instead it speaks of patterns of behavior and trained ways of responding to situations. Hebrews 5:14 speaks of the formation of a habit by repetition, “solid food is for the mature, for those who have their powers of discernment trained by constant practice to distinguish good from evil. (ESV)” Mature believers have faithfully and repetitiously trained themselves to intentionally practice discernment. Positive behaviors are actions that obey God’s commands, are motivated by his priorities, and bring glory to him, “So we make it our goal to please him, whether we are at home in the body or away from it.”[10] Habits are formed by repetition and practice of God-honoring responses, “training us to renounce ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright, and godly lives in the present age.”[11] As a result of training to please God, those in Hebrews now have an automatic skill to critically evaluate situations for their moral repercussions. Positive habits are a sign of a wise and maturing believer who is striving to honor the Lord in their actions.

Negative Habits

Negative habits are actions that are not honoring to God. When behavior does not honor God, it may have a short or long-term consequence, but also may seem positive but is still a negative in the eyes of God “for whatever does not proceed from faith is sin.”[12] Negative habits are the result of heart patterns that have overflowed into detrimental or unwanted behavior. These are reinforced by repetition and create standard responses in an individual. An example of this is in 2 Peter 2:14 “having eyes full of adultery that never cease from sin, enticing unstable souls, having a heart trained in greed, accursed children! (NASB)” This person has a habit of never ceasing to look with lust which is a result of a heart trained in greed. This word, γυμνάζω (to train), has the idea of an athlete training rigorously and consistently. Habits are actions, responses, and as seen here are thoughts that have been trained into the heart and mind of an individual.

Etiology

All behavior, including behavior that seems to be unintentional flow from the heart of an individual. Though these patterns may be established neural pathways in the brain, the habit is not what motivates a person to act in a specific way. Instead, the person’s actions are dictated from the desires of their heart, “out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks. The good person out of his good treasure brings forth good, and the evil person out of his evil treasure brings forth evil.”[13] In the heart of the person lays what he treasures most. This treasure drives thoughts, and actions and is the ultimate reason why people do what they do (Proverbs 4:23).

Habit Change

Patterns of behavior can and must be changed in the life of a believer. It may be hard, but with discipline and practice “unbiblical habits can be unlearned, and biblical habits can be learned and strengthened.” Lasting change is rooted in the hope of Jesus Christ, “and such were some of you. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.”[14] The previous verses in the passage spoke of those whose patterns of behavior were unpleasing to the Lord, but they no longer are conformed to those habits, they have been changed by the power of Christ! Change comes from an intentional choice to discern what they are worshiping in place of God and put this off, renew their minds in Christ and the promises and commands that are in God’s word, and then put on the new, God-honoring pattern of behavior as outlined in Ephesians 4:22-24. This involves intentionally working and guarding the heart against sin and submitting one’s evil thoughts to Christ (Proverbs 4:23, 2 Corinthians 10:5). Learning proper behavior is dependent on mind renewal and obedient responses to real life.[15] This can be practically done by facilitating homework based on biblical principles that involve application and practice by forcing the individual to concretely understand the biblical principle and act upon change.

  1. Recommended Books

Christian Counselor’s Manual by Jay Adams

How People Change by Timothy S. Lane and Paul David Trip

How to Help People Change by Jay Adams

Addictive Habits: Changing for Good by David Dunham

  1. Recommended Articles

https://www.gty.org/library/questions/QA142/how-can-i-overcome-a-bad-habit

https://www.gty.org/library/sermons-library/80-106/dealing-with-habitual-sins

https://biblicalcounselingcenter.org/self-care-change-bad-habits-good/

  1. Recommended Homework

Addictive Habits: Changing for Good by David Dunham

Thought Journal

Doing Wonderful Things (DWT) Worksheets

-Romans 13:14

-2 Corinthians 10:5

-Ephesians 4:8

-Ephesians 4:22-24

-James 1:14-15

[1] Barandiaran, Xabier E, and Ezequiel A Di Paolo. “A genealogical map of the concept of habit.” Frontiers in human neuroscience vol. 8 522. 21 Jul. 2014, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00522

[2] Ibid.

[3] Lucas Carden, Wendy Wood, Habit formation and change, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20, 2018, Pages 117-122, ISSN 2352-1546, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.009. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352154617301602)

[4] Jager, W. (2003) Breaking ’bad habits’: a dynamical perspective on habit formation and change. in: L. Hendrickx, W. Jager, L. Steg, (Eds.) Human Decision Making and Environmental Perception. Understanding and Assisting Human Decision Making in Real-life Settings. Liber Amicorum for Charles Vlek. Groningen: University of Groningen.

[5] Schwartz, Jeffrey, and Rebecca Gladding. You Are Not Your Brain: the 4-Step Solution for Changing Bad Habits, Ending Unhealthy Thinking, and Taking Control of Your Life. Penguin Group, 2012.

[6] Dean, Jeremy. 2013. Making Habits, Breaking Habits : Why We Do Things, Why We Don’t, and How to Make Any Change Stick. Boston, MA: Da Capo Press. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=nlebk&AN=512402&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Chapter 3.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Quinn, Jeffrey M., Anthony Pascoe, Wendy Wood, and David T. Neal. “Can’t Control Yourself? Monitor Those Bad Habits.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36, no. 4 (April 2010): 499–511. doi:10.1177/0146167209360665.

[9] Master’s College. 2005. Counseling: How to Counsel Biblically. Edited by John MacArthur and Wayne A Mack. The John Macarthur Pastor’s Library. Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson.

[10] 2 Corinthians 5:9 ESV

[11] Titus 2:12 ESV

[12] Romans 14:23 ESV

[13] Matthew 12:34b-35 ESV

[14] 1 Corinthians 6:11 ESV

[15] Adams, Jay E. 2010. The Christian Counselor’s Manual : The Practice of Nouthetic Counseling. The Jay Adams Library. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=nlebk&AN=1524925&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Chapter 19.

Fear of Man

By Brianna Klassen

I. Definition: 

Fear of man is defined as an epidemic of the soul that can be characterized by peer-pressure, worry, and codependency. It is the act of placing others before God in one’s life.

II. Biblical perspective

Fear of man is expressed biblically as a “snare” in Proverbs 29:25. In the book When People Are Big and God Is Small, Edward Welch best describes fear of man as, “Fear in the biblical sense…includes being afraid of someone, but it extends to holding someone in awe, being controlled or mastered by people, worshipping other people, putting your trust in people, or needing people.” This problem is severe and must be combatted with the truth of God’s Word. All throughout Scripture we are commanded to fear God and not man. Scripture is sufficient and superior than any other form of help and comfort. It is the only means by which biblical change comes about.

We are given two clear examples of fear of man in the Bible. The most well-known case of this is one of Jesus’ beloved, Peter. After Christ had been taken and questioned, Peter repeatedly denies Christ three times. This was the fear of man inside Peter that caused him to fear others instead of his Savior. This trial later leads Peter to write to encourage others in 1 Peter 3:14, “…have no fear of them, nor be troubled, but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you.” Another example of fear of man in God’s Word is the story of the Pharisee named Nicodemus. John 3:1-2, “Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 2 This man came to Jesus by night and said to him, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do unless God is with him.” Nicodemus was a powerful ruler that met Jesus under the cover of night in order to prevent anyone to know he was there. Nicodemus and Peter were both ruled by the fear of man and it manifested in both of their actions and thinking.

Secular perspective

 

  1. The term “fear of man” does not exist in the secular world and culture. Based upon the physical and emotional symptoms that fear of man can have on a person, the most commonly probable diagnosis would be a Borderline Personality Disorder, specifically the Avoidant Personality Disorder or Dependent Personality Disorder.
  2. The Cleveland Clinic characterizes the Avoidant Personality Disorder as being a condition included in the anxious personality disorder group. This group, they claim, includes disorders marked by feelings of nervousness and fear. People with avoidant personality disorder have poor self-esteem. They also have an intense fear of rejection and being negatively judged by others.

The Cleveland Clinic describes the Dependent personality disorder as the need to be cared for by others. This condition results in submissive and clingy behavior, a fear of separation, and difficulty making decisions without reassurance from others.

Diagnostic criteria for Avoidant Personality Disorder and Dependent Personality Disorder based on DSM-IV:

  1. avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection
  2. is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked
  3. shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed
  4. is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations
  5. is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy
  6. views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others
  7. is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing
  8. A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation.
  9. Has difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval.
  10. Has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on their own (because of a lack of self confidence in judgment or abilities rather than a lack of motivation or energy).
  11. Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant.

 

Symptoms according to DSM-IV:

  1. Feelings of inadequacy
  2. Feelings of consistent anxiety
  3. Fear of rejection
  4. Easily hurt by criticism
  5. Lack of close friends
  6. Reluctance to become involved with people
  7. Avoidance of activities or occupations that involve contact with others
  8. Shyness in social situations out of fear of doing something wrong
  9. Has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others.
  10. Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of their life.

 

The Avoidant and Dependent Personality disorders, in the secular world, are sometimes characterized as “incurable” and those who are diagnosed with it are encouraged to pursue ways of keeping it maintained and manageable.

  • Therapies recommended to those with avoidant or dependent personality disorder:
  • Psychotherapy
  • Cognitive-Behavioral therapy
  • Desensitization
  • Medications recommended to those with avoidant or dependent personality disorder:

Sedative

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)

Fluoxetine

  • Recommended specialists:
  1. Clinical psychologist
  2. Psychiatrist
  3. Primary care provider
  4. Emergency medicine doctor

III. History  

 The phrase “fear of man” is a term that was first mentioned in Proverbs 29:25, “The fear of man lays a snare, but whoever trusts in the Lord is safe.” This sin often goes unnoticed in most because it is a sin that all are tempted in. This issue hasn’t been widely covered and there are not many resources that are directed to this exact problem. The research on this history of this phrase is not very evident. One of the first books that has directly covered fear of man is Edward Welch’s book, When People Are Big and God Is Small: Overcoming Peer Pressure, Codependency, and the Fear of Man. This book provides a very clear and beneficial perspective on fear of man. It has been significantly helpful in laying out the theology behind this struggle and promoting growth and change.

IV. Evidence of the Problem

Fear of man is evident in everyone’s life in some way or another. The extent of this struggle will appear different in most. We all struggle with how we view ourselves in compared to others. We base our choices and decisions on whether or not others will think highly of us. Welch describes this perfectly as, “We are more concerned about looking stupid (a fear of people) than we are about acting sinfully (a fear of God).”  We become consumed with how others view us, and we forget how we look in front of the One who created us. The fear of man is captivating and controlling and will run our lives if we do not fight it. Galatians 1:10 declares, “For am I now seeking the approval of man, or of God? Or am I trying to please man? If I were still trying to please man, I would not be a servant of Christ.”

V. Etiology

Fear of man is integrated into every person because of our sinful nature. Everyone will struggle with fear of man at different times and in different ways, both spiritually and physically. This sin has definite consequences that can represent itself in both physical and spiritual symptoms. Spiritual causes of fear of man will come from an inner sinful attitude or thinking. Physical symptoms of fear of man will represent itself in the outward actions that flow from the heart.

Spiritual symptoms

  1. Discouragement
  2. Lack of peace
  3. Ungratefulness
  4. Anxiety
  5. Envy

 Physical symptoms

  • Unclear of shifting self-image
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Emotional mood swings
  • Ingenuine behavior
  • Fickle
  • Insomnia
  • Insecure
  • People-pleasing
  • Discontentment
  • Lack of self esteem

 

VI. Examining the Heart

  1. Heart themes
    1. Incorrect view of the sovereignty of God
    2. Incorrect view of self
    3. Fear of others
    4. Lack of understanding of Scripture
    5. Lack of love for others
  2. Idols of the heart
    1. Self-image
    2. Pride
    3. Others’ opinions
    4. Control
    5. Envy

VII. Biblical Solutions

 Counseling Agenda

Fear of man is the most common struggle that we all face. We ache to feel connected to others and to feel a sense of belonging. In order to feel that way we do everything we can to please those around us, even at the cost of ourselves and God. In order to face this inner battle of worship we must turn to God’s Word. Scripture will remain as the only way to be truly renewed and changed by the Holy Spirit. Therapies and medications can be helpful and can erase some of the physical symptoms of fear of man, but it will never get to the heart of a person, only Jesus Christ is capable. There is a reason and a purpose for the struggle of the fear of man. As Edward Welch states the truth that, “Jesus did not die to increase our self-esteem. Rather, Jesus died to bring glory to the Father by redeeming people from the curse of sin.”  In order to be changed and renewed from our desire to please man instead of our Creator, we must turn to Christ and Scripture.

 

Bibliography

 

  • Bloom, Jon. “Lay Aside the Fear of Man.” Desiring God, September 16, 2016. https://www.desiringgod.org/articles/lay-aside-the-fear-of-man
  • Mack, Wayne A., et al. Courage: Fighting Fear with Fear. P&R Publishing, 2014.
  • Welch, Edward T. When People Are Big and God Is Small: Overcoming Peer Pressure, Codependency, and the Fear of Man. P & R Pub., 1997.

 

 

Recommended Resources:

 

Books:

Adams, Jay E. What Do You Do When Fear Overcomes You? Nutley, NJ: Presbyterian & Reformed Pub., 1975.

 

Fitzpatrick, Elyse. Overcoming Fear, Worry and Anxiety: Becoming a Woman of Faith & Confidence. Vereeniging: Christian Art, 2002.

 

Fitzpatrick, Elyse. Idols of the Heart: Learning to Long for God Alone. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2016.

 

MacArthur, John F. David C Cook, 2012.

 

Mack, Wayne A., and Joshua Mack. The Fear Factor: What Satan Doesn’t Want You to Know. Tulsa, OK: Hensley Publishing, 2002.

 

Mack, Wayne A., Joshua Mack, and Jerry Bridges. Courage: Fighting Fear with Fear. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2014.

 

Mellinger, Jared. A Bright Tomorrow: How to Face the Future without Fear. Greensboro, NC: New Growth Press, 2018.

 

Smith, William Paul. Living in a Dangerous World: Moving from Fear to Faith. Greensboro, NC: New Growth Press, 2011.

 

Welch, Edward T. When People Are Big and God Is Small: Overcoming Peer Pressure, Codependency, and the Fear of Man. Phillipsburg, NJ: P & R Pub., 1997.

 

Welch, Edward T. Running Scared: Fear, Worry, and the God of Rest. Greensboro, NC: New Growth Press, 2007.

 

Welch, Edward T. When I Am Afraid: A Step-by-step Guide Away from Fear and Anxiety. Greensboro, NC: New Growth Press, 2010.

 

 

 

Articles

  • Bloom, Jon. “Lay Aside the Fear of Man.” Desiring God, September 16, 2016. https://www.desiringgod.org/articles/lay-aside-the-fear-of-man
  • Jones, Robert D. “Getting to the Heart of Your Worry.” The Journal of Biblical Counseling 17, no. 3 (1999): 21-24.
  • Andrew H. Selle, “The Bridge over Troubled Waters: Overcoming Crippling Fear by Faith and Love,” Journal of Biblical Counseling.

 

 

 

Recommended homework resources

 

Edward Welch recommends completing various homework assignments that can accurately assess where one lies spiritually.

 

Sample

(taken from Edward Welch’s book, When People Are Big and God Is Small: Overcoming Peer Pressure, Codependency, and the Fear of Man.)

 

Example 1:

 

  1. In your own words, what is fear of man?
  2. If the fear of others is as prevalent in our lives as the Bible suggests, make a list of the ways it is expressed in your life.
  3. Answer these questions to uncover a fear of man,
    • What thoughts or actions do you prefer to keep in the dark?
    • Have you noticed times when you cover up with lies, justifications, blaming, avoiding, or changing the subject?
    • Do you show favoritism?
  4. What are some word pictures that describe you?
  5. Try to interpret the descriptions of codependency and see the idols that lie behind them.

 

Another beneficial homework assignment to combat the fear of man with a godly fear would be as follows,

 

Example 2:

 

David’s psalms are not illustrations of the fear of man. His fear was within godly parameters. In his fear he consistently turned to his King. He is an illustration that ad experiences don’t have to provoke the sinful fear of people. But notice what David did. He was constantly reminding himself that he stood at the crossroads between faith in god and fear of people. He was always alert to his vulnerability to the fear of people. It is a slippery slope between normal fear and an idolatrous fear of man. To stay on track and to keep yourself accountable, meditate on the Psalms with faith and follow David’s example. Try to align your heart’s desire with Psalm 27

 

The Lord is my light and my salvation;
whom shall I fear?
The Lord is the stronghold of my life;
of whom shall I be afraid?

When evildoers assail me
to eat up my flesh,
my adversaries and foes,
it is they who stumble and fall.

Though an army encamp against me,
my heart shall not fear;
though war arise against me,
yet I will be confident.

One thing have I asked of the Lord,
that will I seek after:
that I may dwell in the house of the Lord
all the days of my life,
to gaze upon the beauty of the Lord
and to inquire in his temple.

 

 

Example 3:

 

A simple but effective homework assignment is writing down these verses on notecards and placing them in areas that you see often, (ex. mirror, car, etc.)

 

  1. 2 Timothy 1:7, “For God gave us a spirit not of fear but of power and love and self-control.”
  2. Galatians 1:10, “For am I now seeking the approval of man, or of God? Or am I trying to please man? If I were still trying to please man, I would not be a servant of Christ.”
  3. Isaiah 51:12, “I, I am he who comforts you; who are you that you are afraid of man who dies, of the son of man who is made like grass”

 

 

 

 

Other useful resources for homework

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anorexia

By Hannah Walsh

I. Definition:

Eating Disorder: the habitual misuse of food, characterized by severe disturbances in eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Anorexia Nervosa: an eating disorder characterized by extreme weight loss.

Biblical Perspective

A person ought to bring glory to God in all that they do, including eating and drinking (1 Corinthians 10:31). Eating disorders are a misuse of God’s gift of food, and are contrary to God’s design for human beings. God created food to be enjoyable and nourishing. Unfortunately, sin affects the proper use and enjoyment of food. A person may misuse food by overeating, undereating, or having the wrong attitude about food. This is a result of being controlled or enslaved by wrong desires (1 Corinthians 6:12-13). Indwelling heart idols such as control, pride, or vanity may lead an individual to develop an eating disorder. Actions are sinful when one does them primarily to satisfy one’s own desires instead of to please God.[1] 1 Corinthians 6:19-20 says that one ought to honor God with one’s body. A person’s body does not belong to themselves, but to God (Romans 14:7–8). It is clear that someone with an eating disorder is not glorifying the Lord in the way that they are treating their body and the provisions that He has provided, nor with the desires that initially brought on the eating disorder.

Secular Perspective:

The National Eating Disorders Association states that there is a growing consensus that eating disorders are caused by a range of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.[2] More than merely a lifestyle choice, eating disorders are considered serious and often fatal illnesses.[3] Someone with an eating disorder is often described as having an abnormal eating pattern, stemming from mental or emotional issues. Signs of eating disorders may include an unhealthy obsession with food, body weight, and shape. The three general types of eating disorders are known as anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating. [4] It is commonly accepted that eating disorders most often stem from incorrect thinking, and in particular an incorrect view of self.

Generally, people suffering from anorexia nervosa obsessively restrict calories and foods. Dorland’s Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers states that, most commonly occurring in young females, anorexia is characterized by a refusal to maintain normal body weight, a fear of gaining weight or becoming obese, a disturbance of body image, an unwarranted reliance on body weight or shape for self-evaluation, and amenorrhea.[5]

Secular treatments for eating disorders include nutritional rehabilitation, individual psychotherapy, reinforcement and cognition, inpatient and residential, group therapy, and family interventions, and medication.[6]

II. History

In the 19th century, a French psychiatrist named Charles Lasegue studied anorexia from a social and psychological standpoint.[7] In time physicians agreed that eating disorders were medical conditions and physical diseases, and later it was come to be accepted that they were not merely physical, but emotional and mental matters. In 1980, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) added an eating disorders section for the first time.[8] Since that time, eating disorders have come to be considered serious issues stemming from mental illnesses.[9]

III. Etiology

Eating disorders are both spiritual and physical matters. It is important to understand both the spiritual and physical aspects.

Physical evidences of eating disorders depends upon the particular disorder. A person with anorexia nervosa will exhibit certain distinguishable behaviors The DSM-IV outlines four major criteria for diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, which include a refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for their age and height , an experience of intense fear of gaining weight or becoming obese even though they are underweight, a misunderstanding of the seriousness of their weight loss provide and a demonstration of disturbances in the way their body weight and shape is experienced.[10] Obvious symptoms may include abnormal blood count, fatigue,  dizziness/fainting, anxiety and depression, insomnia, thinning hair, discoloration of skin, osteoporosis, or low blood pressure. A person with an eating disorders may isolate themselves from others or exhibit compulsive behavior.[11]

The spiritual side of the matter is of even more importance, as it is of eternal importance. Even secular psychologies state that eating disorders are not merely physical. The disorders stem from internal desires, and result in further spiritual issues. A person may, for example, desire to be in control of every aspect of their life, or desire to be beautiful or perfect. These desires, when desired above God, lead to sinful behavior. The eating disorder may lead to further sinful responses or attitudes, such as anger, depression, or anxiety.

IV. Examining the Heart

It is important that a believer thinks about the issues of eating disorders through the lens of Scripture. There are two emergency situations involved in eating disorders – the first is the physical life-threatening emergency, and the second is the spiritual eternal-soul threatening emergency.[12]  Both must be dealt with in the proper way. The goal in counseling an individual who is dealing from an eating disorder is not merely to help restore them to a place where they are physically healthy and out of danger, but ultimately that the individual would experience true biblical change that can only come from the truth of God’s Word and the work of the Spirit impacting their heart and mind. Ultimately, as in all matters, the goal is that Jesus Christ would be glorified.

A counselee should be led towards a better understanding of who God is and why He made man. This will lead into a better understanding of how one ought to live in response, and how that affects even the way that one eats.

Once determined, the heart issues need to be addresses. Common heart themes in regards to eating disorders are control and vanity.

Control: A person who idolizes control is not trusting in God’s sovereignty. There desire is, essentially, to try to be God instead of trusting and living in submission to God. This idol can lead to eating disorders, such as anorexia, because the person desires to control every calorie they intake or every pound they weigh to the point where is becomes unhealthy and obsessive. They may pride themselves in having control over their feelings of hunger. The desire to be in control can lead to obsessive behavior in regards to food.

Vanity: Vanity is another common root of eating disorders. Many secular counselors will tell their counselees that they need to think more highly of themselves, that there self-esteem is too low. This is not the case. On the contrary, a person is thinking too highly of themselves when they so strongly desire to look a certain way that they are willing to hurt themselves to get there.

V. Biblical Solutions

When it comes to eating disorders, many biblical counselors use what is sometimes called the Three-Pronged Approach to care for their counselee in the best possible way.[13] This refers to the team approach that should be taken, as eating disorders are both a physical emergency as well as a heart issue. The three-prongs are: Medical doctor, Nutritionist, and Biblical Counselor. A biblical counselor needs to care for the counselee’s soul and mind, while encouraging her to be heeding the instructions of her doctor and nutritionist. Eating disorders are unique counseling issues as the spiritual and the physical aspects of eating disorders correlate. As in any counseling issue, the goal is that a counselee would move towards Christlikeness. The purpose is promoting genuine, lasting change in the life of a counselee, for the glory of God. Ephesians 4 demonstrates that sin needs to be put off, and righteousness needs to be put on. In some cases, the sin of control or vanity needs to be put off, and trust in God and humility need to be put on. Sinful behaviors and actions, such as the misuse of food, need to be put off, and godly behaviors need to replace them. This can only be done through a work of the Holy Spirit in one’s heart. A counselee needs to be led to heart-altering truth of God’s Word in order to experience change.

 

Recommended Sources:

“How to Help People Change” by Jay Adams

“Love to Eat, Hate to Eat” by Elyse Fitzpatrick

“Redeemed From the Pit: Biblical Repentance And Restoration From The Bondage of Eating Disorders” by Marie Notcheva

“Counseling as if Life Depended on It” by Martha Peace (audio)

“Eating Disorders: Hope for Hungering Souls” by Mark Shaw

“Eating Disorders: The Quest for Thinness” by Ed Welch

 

 

Recommended Homework Sources:

“A Homework Manual for Biblical Living” by Wayne Mack

“More Than Bread: A Workbook for Women Who Struggle with Eating” by Elyse Fitzpatrick

Discovering Wonderful Things Worksheets

  • 1 Corinthians 10:13
  • 1 Corinthians 6:19-20
  • Matthew 6:33

Self-Talk Log Worksheet

Daily Prayer Journal

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

[1] Fitzpatrick, Elyse. More than Bread. 19.

[2] https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/what-are-eating-disorders

[3] https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/eating-disorders/index.shtml

[4]National Institute for Mental Health, Eating Disorders: About More Than Food.

[5] Dorland, W. A. Newman. Dorland’s Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. 91.

[6] Mental Health: American Addiction Centers, Inc: “Eating Disorder Professional Treatment

[7] https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/historical-understandings/

[8] “DSM-IV-TR Classification.” Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)

[9] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anorexia-nervosa/symptoms-causes/syc-20353591

[10]https://www.psycom.net/anorexia-and-depression/

[11]https://iocdf.org/expert-opinions/expert-opinion-eating-disorders-and-ocd/

[12]Peace, Martha. “Counseling as If a Life Depended on It (Anorexia).”IBCD Institute for Biblical

Counseling and Discipleship, 13 July 2017, ibcd.org/counseling-as-if-a-life-depended-on-

it-anorexia/.

[13]https://www.biblicalcounselingcoalition.org/2015/03/03/a-three-pronged-team-approach-when-caring-for-people-with-eating-disorders/

Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)

By David Wong

I. Definition

  1. Biblical Perspective
    1. Persistent Depressive Disorder is “a continuous long-term (chronic) form of depression.”[1] Asher and Asher say that “the primary diagnostic feature is clinical depression (see Depression) that lasts more or less continuously for two years (one year in children and adolescents).”[2]
    2. Persistent Depressive Disorder is similar in nature to Major Depression, but Persistent Depressive Disorder “usually has fewer or less serious symptoms than major depression”[3]
      1. Major distinctive characteristic is the time frame and severity of the disorder.
  2. Secular Perspective
    1. DSM V
      1. “Depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated by either subjective account or observation by others, for at least 2 years.”[4]
        1. 1 year for adolescents and children
      2. Treatments/Methodologies
        1. One of the significant treatments applicable to those diagnosed with Persistent Depressive Disorder through Psychology is Psychotherapy.
          1. Psychotherapy refers to therapeutic treatment of mental disorders without the use of medication.
          2. Some common therapies include[5]:
            1. Cognitive Behavioral Theory
            2. Interpersonal Therapy
            3. Dialectic Behavioral Therapy
            4. Psychodynamic Therapy
            5. Psychoanalytical Therapy
            6. Supportive Therapy
            7. Other Therapies include:
              1. Animal Assisted Therapy
              2. Creative Arts Therapy
              3. Play Therapy
              4. Yoga
              5. Psychotherapy does not necessarily have to be strict as to the type of psychotherapy being used. Psychologists may combine elements from several styles of psychotherapy, “they blend elements from different approaches and tailor their treatment according to each client’s needs.”[6]
        2. Medication
          1. Psychology also advocates for the use of anti-depressants as medication for depression as well. Some common medicines include[7]:
            1. Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
            2. Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
            3. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
            4. Other Types[8]
            5. Atypical Antidepressants
            6. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

II. History

  1. DSM III
    1. Categorized as Dysthymic Disorder (Depressive Neurosis) under 300.40 in Affective Disorders.
    2. Dysthymia was originally introduced in the DSM III[9]
    3. Dysthymia occurs when, during the last two years, the “individual has been bothered most or all of the time by symptoms characteristic of the depressive syndrome but that are not of sufficient severity and duration to meet the criteria for a major depressive episode.”[10]
      1. Duration of 2 years for adults
      2. Duration of 1 year for children and adolescents
    4. “The manifestations of the depressive syndrome may be relatively persistent or separated by periods of normal mood lasting a few days to a few weeks, but no more than a few months at a time”[11]
  2. DSM V
    1. Classified as Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) under 300.4 (F34.1) as a Depressive Disorder.
    2. The major change from the DSM IV to the DSM V is that Dysthymia is gone, replaced with persistent depressive disorder
      1. This new condition includes both chronic major depression and dysthymia because of the “inability to find scientifically meaningful differences between these two conditions”[12]
    3. Evidence of the Problem
      1. The DSM V says that those experiencing two (or more) of the following are likely to have Persistent Depressive Disorder[13]:
        1. Poor appetite or overeating
        2. Insomnia or Hypersomnia
        3. Low energy or fatigue
        4. Low self-esteem
        5. Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions
        6. Feelings of hopelessness

III. Etiology

  1. Potential Causes of Persistent Depressive Disorder (Psychological View)
    1. The exact cause of Persistent Depressive Disorder is unknown. However, it could be a result of such causes as:
      1. Biological Differences or Brain Chemistry[14]
        1. Scientists have identified many different neurotransmitters that may play a role in depression, and this includes neurotransmitters like[15]
          1. Acetylcholine
          2. Serotonin
          3. Norepinephrine
          4. Dopamine
          5. Glutamate
          6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
  1. Inherited Traits
    1. “Depression does not have a clear pattern of inheritance in families.”[16]
    2. However, “people who have a first-degree relative with depression appear to have a two to three times greater risk of developing the condition than the general public”[17]
  2. Life Events
    1. “Traumatic events such as the loss of a loved one, financial problems or a high level of stress can trigger persistent depressive disorder in some people”[18]
  3. Potential Causes of Persistent Depressive Disorder (Spiritual)
    1. Biblical counselors must recognize that physical, physiological, and biological issues occurring with the counselee do have the ability to influence the response of the counselee.
      1. However, while physical, physiological, and biological issues can influence a person, they cannot force a person to respond with sin.
    2. “Depression unrelated to drugs or a physical illness are often indicative of wrong thinking or other spiritual problems”[19]
      1. The person must respond to their sin with confession to the Lord and repentance from their sin
        1. Persistent depressive disorder is not, in and of itself, a sin
          1. Sinful actions and habits may lead to persistent depressive disorder, and persistent depressive disorder may result in sinful actions and habits
          2. However, Persistent depressive disorder is not, in and of itself, a sin
        2. Spiritual Symptoms
          1. Guilt
          2. Anxiety
          3. Suffering
          4. Feelings of Inferiority
          5. Hopelessness
  4. Physical Symptoms
    1. Poor appetite or overeating
    2. Insomnia or Hypersomnia
    3. Low energy or fatigue

IV. Examining the Heart

  1. Heart Themes
    1. Fear of Man
      1. “Instead of a biblically guided fear of the Lord, we fear others”[20]
      2. The most radical treatment for the fear of man is the fear of the Lord.
        1. The sufferer must first “know that God is awesome and glorious, not other people”[21]
      3. The action the counselee must take to remedy the fear of man is to “need them less and love them more”[22]
      4. Relevant Passages
        1. Proverbs 29:25
        2. Matthew 10:28
        3. Galatians 1:10
        4. Mark 12:30-31
      5. Control
        1. Wrong thinking and belief that control will bring us satisfaction or happiness.
        2. “We don’t know what’s best for us because we’re not the Creator.”[23]
        3. Show counselee that God is in control and that He is working for good
          1. God is Sovereignly in control
          2. God is Good and acts according to His goodness
          3. God is Faithful and always fulfills His promises for our good
  2. Comfort
    1. Obedience to God oftentimes means stepping outside of your comfort zone
      1. John 14:15
      2. 1 John 5:3
      3. Romans 12:1-2
    2. Chief end of man is to glorify God and enjoy Him forever.
  3. Biblical Solutions
    1. Counseling Agenda
      1. Involvement
        1. Seek to build a relationship with the counselee
          1. Enter the person’s world[24]
            1. Includes listening to the counselee to discern where they are struggling[25]
          2. Incarnate the love of Christ[26]
            1. “As Christ’s ambassadors, it’s not just what we say that God uses to encourage change in people; it’s also who we are and what we do”[27]
          3. Inspiration
            1. Provide hope to the counselee that Scripture has answers to their problems and that lasting change is possible
              1. “Hope is more than convincing people that things will get better, or helping them decide what to do”[28]
              2. Hope “helps people who are dealing with the unthinkable to view life from the perspective of God’s glory and grace and their identity as His children”[29]
                1. Romans 15:4
                2. 1 Corinthians 10:13
                3. Galatians 3:26
                4. John 1:12
    2. Inventory
      1. Gather physical data
        1. Sleep
        2. Diet
        3. Exercise
        4. Illness
        5. Medication
      2. Discern their heart through speaking and asking appropriate questions to better understand them
      3. Information the counselor wants to know[30]
        1. The situation
        2. The responses
        3. The thoughts
        4. The motives
    3. Interpretation
      1. Involves “accurately analyzing or conceptualizing the data and explaining it to the counselee” [31]
        1. Discern biblical categories that best describe the counselee [32]
          1. Saved or Unsaved?
          2. Spiritually mature or immature
          3. Unruly, fainthearted, weak?
            1. 1 Thessalonians 5:14
      2. Formulate a Working Interpretation[33]
      3. Determine possible reasons for the problem
      4. Consider the Counselee’s heart
      5. Test the Validity of Your Interpretation[34]
    4. Instruction
      1. Instruction should be biblically based[35]
        1. “Counseling that is faithful to the Bible effectively communicates the original meaning of the biblical text in a way that is relevant to the situation and heart of the person you are counseling”[36]
      2. Specific Instruction as to Depression
        1. Physical and Physiological Issues
          1. The counselor must provide biblical instruction as it relates to the physical or physiological aspects of their lives
            1. The extent of this counsel should be to counsel the counselee against unhealthy actions and habits as well as instructing the counselee to undertake healthy living (i.e. sleeping habits, eating habits, exercising, etc.)
              1. For issues that are medical, or may require more professional attention, the counselor should encourage the counselee to see their medical practitioner
            2. Instruct on the heart
              1. Potential heart themes for those struggling the Dysthymia
                1. Control
                2. Comfort
                3. Fear of Man
              2. The role of feelings
              3. Various problems and issues the counselee may be struggling with[37]
                1. Guilt
                2. Anxiety
          2. Suffering
            1. Inferiority
            2. Hopelessness
            3. Laziness
            4. Self-control
    5. Inducement[38]
      1. Fire up the counselee to make certain decisions and commitments that will facilitate change
      2. “Bring counselees to the realization that biblical change involves personal choice”[39]
      3. Promotes a concern about heart sins as well as behavioral sins[40]
        1. “Nothing less than heart repentance and heart change will please God and produce change that is genuine and lasting”
      4. “Secure a commitment from counselees to put off the desires, thoughts, and actions that hinder biblical change and to replace them with ones that promote biblical change”[41]
    6. Implementation
      1. Ephesians 4 Model
        1. Put off the Old
          1. Identify factors that hinder biblical change and take steps to eliminate them[42]
        2. Renewal of the Mind
          1. Provide practical action for the counselee to engage in, in the hopes that the counselee would be personally engaged with Scripture and contain a renewed perspective pertaining to their issues and problems as well as their heart
            1. Prayer
            2. Bible Reading
            3. Biblical instruction
          2. Put on the New[43]
            1. Should be specific as to the counselee according to the Ephesians 4 model
          3. Homework
            1. Homework should provide specific and practical action for the counselee to take
            2. Assigned Bible Reading for the counselee to do and meditate upon
              1. Ephesians 4
              2. 1 Corinthians 10:13
              3. Romans 15:4
            3. Homework should “assist the counselee to apply the truths learned about God, self, and others to the specifics of his living situation, making biblical corrections and instituting new biblical habits”[44]
    7. Integration
      1. Ensure that they are getting involved in their local Church
        1. Sunday Service
        2. Bible Studies
        3. Fellowship Groups
        4. Accountability
      2. At this point, the counselor would like their local church to be shepherding and guiding this person
        1. This includes ongoing discipleship and accountability within the Church
        2. Ensuring that the counselee is surrounded by strong believers that are devoted to the Word and are committed to discipling and keeping the counselee accountable in their living
      3. Recommended Books
        1. How to Help People Change by Jay E. Adams
        2. Counseling: How to Counsel Biblically by The Master’s College
        3. Instruments in the Redeemer’s Hands by Paul David Tripp
        4. When People are Big and God is Small by Edward T. Welch
        5. The Christian’s Guide to Psychological Terms by Marshall and Mary Asher
  1. Recommended Homework Resources
    1. A Homework Manual for Biblical Living by Wayne Mack
    2. Depression Homework Assignment Samples from IBCD
      1. https://ibcd.org/depression-homework-assignment-samples/

 

 

Bibliography

American Psychiatric Association. 1987. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental       Disorders : Dsm-Iii-R. 3Rd edition, revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric      Association.

American Psychiatric Association. 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental       Disorders : Dsm-Iv. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders:             Dsm-5. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

“Antidepressants: Selecting One That’s Right for You.” Mayo Clinic. November 17, 2017.           Accessed April 16, 2019. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/in-       depth/antidepressants/art-20046273.

Daniel Wiswede, et al. 2014. “Tracking Functional Brain Changes in Patients with Depression     under Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Using Individualized Stimuli.”                     https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109037.

“DSM5 Diagnostic Criteria Persistent Depressive Disorder.” 2013.

“Dysthymia – Harvard Health Publications.” 2010. January 6, 2010.                       https://web.archive.org/web/20100106064958/http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/ Dysthymia.htm.

Edward T. Welch, 1997. When People Are Big and God Is Small : Overcoming Peer Pressure,     Codependency, and the Fear of Man. Resources for Changing Lives. Phillipsburg, N.J.: P      & R Pub.

Marshall Asher and Mary Asher. The Christian’s Guide to Psychological Terms. Focus Pub.,        2014.

Moore, Beverly. “The Illusion of Control.” Biblical Counseling Coalition. February 02, 2018.      Accessed April 18, 2019. https://www.biblicalcounselingcoalition.org/2018/02/02/the-           illusion-of-control/.

 “Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) – Symptoms and Causes.” n.d. Mayo Clinic.           Accessed February 16, 2019. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/persistent- depressive-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20350929.

Publishing, Harvard Health. n.d. “What Causes Depression?” Harvard Health. Accessed   February 19, 2019. https://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/what-causes-        depression.

Reference, Genetics Home. n.d. “Depression.” Genetics Home Reference. Accessed February      19, 2019. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/depression.

Robin L. Cautin and Scott O. Lilienfeld, eds. 2014. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology.     Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118625392.

Tripp, Paul David. 2002. Instruments in the Redeemer’s Hands : People in Need of Change          Helping People in Need of Change. Resources for Changing Lives. Phillipsburg, N.J.: P      & R Pub.

 “Understanding Psychotherapy and How It Works.” n.d. Https://Www.Apa.Org. Accessed          February 17, 2019. https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/understanding-psychotherapy

[1] “Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) – Symptoms and Causes.” n.d. Mayo Clinic. Accessed February 16, 2019. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/persistent-depressive-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20350929.

[2] Marshall Asher and Mary Asher. The Christian’s Guide to Psychological Terms. Focus Pub., 2014, 143.

[3] “Dysthymia – Harvard Health Publications.” 2010. January 6, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100106064958/http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/Dysthymia.htm.

[4] American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Dsm-5. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 168.

[5] Daniel Wiswede, et al. 2014. “Tracking Functional Brain Changes in Patients with Depression under Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Using Individualized Stimuli.”  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109037.

[6] “Understanding Psychotherapy and How It Works.” n.d. Https://Www.Apa.Org. Accessed February 17, 2019. https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/understanding-psychotherapy.

[7] Robin L. Cautin and Scott O. Lilienfeld, eds. 2014. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118625392.

[8] “Antidepressants: Selecting One That’s Right for You.” Mayo Clinic. November 17, 2017. Accessed April 16, 2019. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/in-depth/antidepressants/art-20046273.

[9] American Psychiatric Association. 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders : Dsm-Iv. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 209.

[10] American Psychiatric Association. 1987. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders : Dsm-Iii-R. 3Rd edition, revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 222.

[11] Ibid.

[12] American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Dsm-5. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 168.

[13] “DSM5 Diagnostic Criteria Persistent Depressive Disorder.” 2013, 3.

[14] “Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) – Symptoms and Causes.” n.d. Mayo Clinic. Accessed February 16, 2019. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/persistent-depressive-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20350929.

[15] Publishing, Harvard Health. n.d. “What Causes Depression?” Harvard Health. Accessed February 19, 2019. https://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/what-causes-depression.

[16] Reference, Genetics Home. n.d. “Depression.” Genetics Home Reference. Accessed February 19, 2019. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/depression.

[17] Ibid.

[18] “Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) – Symptoms and Causes.” n.d. Mayo Clinic.

[19] Marshall Asher and Mary Asher. The Christian’s Guide to Psychological Terms. Focus Pub., 2014, 61.

[20] Edward T. Welch, 1997. When People Are Big and God Is Small : Overcoming Peer Pressure,   Codependency, and the Fear of Man. Resources for Changing Lives. Phillipsburg, N.J.: P & R Pub, 14.

[21] Ibid., 95.

[22] Ibid., 193.

[23] Moore, Beverly. “The Illusion of Control.” Biblical Counseling Coalition. February 02, 2018. Accessed April 18, 2019. https://www.biblicalcounselingcoalition.org/2018/02/02/the-illusion-of-control/.

[24] Tripp, Paul David. 2002. Instruments in the Redeemer’s Hands : People in Need of Change Helping People in Need of Change. Resources for Changing Lives. Phillipsburg, N.J.: P & R Pub, 126.

[25] Ibid., 128.

[26] Ibid., 133.

[27] Ibid., 134.

[28] Ibid., 157.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Ibid., 189.

[31] Master’s College. 2005. Counseling : How to Counsel Biblically,147.

[32] Ibid., 150.

[33] Ibid., 157-160

[34] Ibid., 159-160.

[35] Ibid., 163.

[36] Street, John D. 2013. Men Counseling Men. Eugene, Or.: Harvest House, Chapter 2.

[37] Marshall Asher and Mary Asher. The Christian’s Guide to Psychological Terms. Focus Pub., 2014, 61-62

[38] Master’s College. 2005. Counseling: How to Counsel Biblically, 176-177

[39] Ibid.

[40] Ibid.

[41] Ibid.

[42] Ibid., 190.

[43] Ibid., 193.

[44] Tripp, Paul David. 2002. Instruments in the Redeemer’s Hands: People in Need of Change Helping People in Need of Change, 343.